Lecture 3: Primary/Backup Replication

Lecture 3: Primary/Backup Replication

Today’s goals

  • avaliablity
  • correctness
  • handle network failures and repair

Tool: replication of service’s state

How to ensure two replicas(server) remain ientical?

  1. copy the whole state, and/or
  2. apply same operations in same order to both replicas

what wider classes of failure would we like to handle?

  • temporary or permanent loss of connectivity
  • network partitions
  • can’t know if a server is crashed or just not reachable

Lab2 goals

  • tolerate network problems, including partition
    • either keep going, correctly
    • or suspend operations until network is repaired
  • replacement of failed servers

Lab2 overview

  • agreement

    • “view server” decides who p and b are
    • clients and servers ask view server
    • they don’t make independent decisions
    • only one vs, avoids multiple machines independently deciding who is p
  • repair

    • view server can co-opt “idle” server as b after old b becomes p
    • primary initializes new backup’s state
  • the tricky part

    • only one primary!
    • primary must have state!

View server

  • maintains a sequence of “views”
  • monitors server liveness

how to ensure new primary has up-to-date replica of state?

  • only promote previous backup

how to avoid promoting a state-less backup?

lab 2 answer:
* primary in each view must acknowledge that view to viewserver
* viewserver must stay with current view until acknowledged
* even if the primary seems to have failed
* no point in proceeding since not acked == backup may not be initialized

how to ensure only one server acts as primary?

the rules:
1. non-backup must reject forwarded requests
2. primary in view i must have been primary or backup in view i-1
3. non-primary must reject direct client requests
4. primary must wait for backup to accept each request

how can new backup get state?

if S2 is backup in view i, but was not in view i-1, S2 should ask primary to transfer the complete state

rule for state transfer:

every operation (Lock,Unlock) must be either before or after state xfer
if before, xferred state must reflect operation
if after, primary must forward operation after xfer finishes


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